The lupin module it is being developed by CSIRO Plant Industry in Perth (Drs Imma Farre and Senthold Asseng) together with Dr Michael Robertson at APSRU. The reader is referred to the science document for the plant module for a comprehensive description of the processes simulated by APSIM-Lupin. This document outlines some lupin-specific issues that are not covered by the plant science document. The lupin module simulates narrow leaf lupin (Lupinus angustifolius).
Notable features of APSIM-LUPIN:
The lupin model has had only a limited testing. The model is still under development and caution should be taken when using outside conditions it has been validated for (sandplain soils in WA)
The phenology parameters have been tested on cultivars Belara, Kalya, Merrit, Myallie, Tallerac, Tanjil, Wodjil and Gungurru in several locations across Western Australia.
Crop growth, final yield, LAI and water uptake has been only tested in cultivars Merrit and Gungurru in Moora (sandy soil) and Beverley (duplex soil) in Western Australia, respectively.
The phenology of the lupin cultivars tested so far respond to photoperiod (daylength) but not to vernalisation. (The modern cultivars used for calibration and testing do not respond to vernalisation, but some old cultivars do respond to vernalisation)
Crop growth is not sensitive to row spacing
Crop growth is not sensitive to waterlogging.
In the module, pods do not photosynthesise.
There are 8 conventional cultivars of narrow leaf lupin in the lupin.ini file: Belara, Kalya, Merrit, Myallie, Tallerac, Tanjil, Wodjil and Gungurru.
APSIM-Lupin has received limited testing in the wheatbelt of Western Australian, with factors such as cultivars, sowing date, irrigation, soil type varying. Cultivar Merrit has been tested against observed data (Dracup et al., 1998) on a duplex soil in Beverley (average annual rainfall = 400 mm), under rainfed conditions and supplementary irrigation in 1993. Model outputs have been compared to measurements of time course of total above ground biomass, seed weight, pod wall and LAI.
Cultivar Merrit has been tested against observed data (Anderson et al., 1998a, 1998b) on a deep sand soil in Moora (average annual rainfall = 460 mm), under rainfed conditions, in 1995 and 1996. Observed time course of total above ground biomass, final seed yield and daily values of soil water content at different depths were compared to model simulations. Cultivar Gungurru has been tested against observed data (Gregory, 1998; Gregory and Eastham, 1996) on a duplex soil in Beverley, under rainfed conditions, in 2 sowing dates from 1990 to 1993. Because of the limited testing we would caution users taking the model outside WA and sandy soils.
Anderson , G.C., Fillery, I.R.P., Dolling, P.J. & Asseng, S. 1998. Nitrogen and water flows under pasture-wheat and lupin-wheat rotations in deep sands in Western Australia . 1. Nitrogen fixation in legumes, net N mineralisation, and utilisation of soil-derived nitrogen. Australian Journal of Agricultural Research , 49, 329-343.
Anderson , G.C., Fillery, I.R.P., Dunin, F.X., Dolling, P.J. & Asseng, S. 1998. Nitrogen and water flows under pasture-wheat and lupin-wheat rotations in deep sands in Western Australia . 2. Drainage and nitrate leaching. Australian Journal of Agricultural Research , 49, 345-361.
Dracup, M., Reader, M.A. & Palta, J.A. 1998. Variation in yield of narrow-leafed lupin caused by terminal drought. Australian Journal of Agricultural Research , 49, 799-810.
Gregory, P.J. 1998. Alternative crops for duplex soils: Growth and water use of some cereal, legume, and oilseed crops, and pastures. Australian Journal of Agricultural Research , 49, 21-32.
Gregory, P.J.& Eastham, J. 1996. Growth of shoots and roots, and interception of radiation by wheat and lupin crops on a shallow, duplex soil in response to time of sowing. Australian Journal of Agricultural Research , 47, 427-447.