The State of the Art in Modeling Waterlogging Impacts on Plants: What Do We Know and What Do We Need to Know

This paper reviewed approaches used to model waterlogging in cropping systems. It was shown that most models adopted an aeration stress (AS) principle where surplus water reduces air‐filled porosity, with implications for root growth. However, subsequent effects of AS within each model varied considerably. In some cases, AS inhibited biomass accumulation (e.g. AquaCrop), altering processes prior to biomass accumulation such as light interception (e.g. APSIM), or photosynthesis and carbohydrate accumulation (e.g. SWAGMAN Destiny). While many models accounted for stage‐dependent waterlogging effects, few models accounted for experimentally observed delays in phenology caused by waterlogging. Of the point‐based dynamic models examined, APSIM‐Soybean and APSIM‐Oryza simulations most closely matched the observed data, while GLAM‐WOFOST achieved the highest performance of the spatial‐regional models examined. It was concluded that future models should incorporate waterlogging effects on genetic tolerance parameters such as (1) phenology of stress onset, (2) aerenchyma, (3) root hydraulic conductance, (4) nutrient‐use efficiency, and (5) plant ion (e.g. Fe/Mn) tolerance